Key Concepts and Definitions
Higher education: according to the International Standard Classification of Education higher education as a part of tertiary education is devoted to bachelors' (6), masters' (7) or doctoral degrees (8) and their equivalents levels
Higher education system: in most cases we consider a set of higher education institutions (public, private, for-profit) as a system
Differentiation: a process in which new entities (higher education institutions) emerge in a system (new may be a mixture/hybrid of characteristics of existing entities)
Horizontal differerentiation: a process in which new functional types emerge
Vertical differentiation: a process in which differences in status/prestige/quality emerge
Diversity: the variety of higher education institutions within a higher education system and or the dispersion of certain types across the system
Diversification: the process of increasing diversity in a higher education system
Landscape: a metaphor that depicts the overall composition of the higher education system
Organizational interrelationships in higher education: the static form of this relates to how higher education institutions are connected (either by free will or by purposive action of a key stakeholder). The dynamic form revolves around supporting cooperation, forming alliances andestablishing mergers
Educational and professional trajectory: educational tracks of particular student or student cohorts related to their academic achievements, social capital and meaningful individual life choices
Admission quotas: number of students whose fee is payed by government assigned to particular university
Fee-paying students: a general wording for all university students who pay for their education on their own as opposed to those ones whose tuition fees a payed by central goverment
Part-time higher education: form of distant learning based on fulfillment of written assignments by students who meet professors only once per semester
Assignment of graduates: distribution of university alumni to particular jobs fulfilled by educational administrators according to 5-year economic plans approved by central government of the USSR
Flagship university: relatively big specialized higher school (e.g. higher school of forestry or agriculture) controlling educational and research activities of a number of smaller regional higher schools or subordinated branches
Branch HEIs: a proxy of a bigger university located outside of Moscow and funded on the expense of its founding institution
Purposeful enrollment: admission quota allocated for the students from particular part of the country or from particular enterprise
specific for post-Soviet higher education systems
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