In this paper, we study the relationship between family characteristics and the choice of an educational trajectory in high school. We explore three situations of educational choice: the choice between academic and vocational education after grades 9th (middle to high school transition) and 11th (postsecondary) as well as the choice between selective and non-selective university at the postsecondary educational choice. In accordance with R.Budon’s theory we explore primary and secondary effects of family’s socioeconomic status (SES). Primary effects are expressed via association between family’s SES and educational achievements. Secondary effects are expressed via association between students SES and their educational choices directly. The work is based on the data of the longitudinal project "Trajectories in Education and Careers". It was launched in 2011, when respondents studied in the 8th grade, and continues to these days. The dataset provide variables on the wide range of achievement, family’s SES and other important information proxies. For achievement TIMSS mathematics and USE in Russian language were used. The results showed that the primary effects reduce from the 9th to the 11th grades education choice, while the role of secondary effects increase. Even high achieving students from families with a low level of cultural, educational, and social capital chose less selective institutions. Conversely, students from families with high SES, but low academic achievements, will make a choice in favor of higher education. Conclusions are made about the degree of accessibility during transition into the high school and higher education, as well as the probable causes of the manifestation of inequality.
The article is devoted to the identification of key factors that influence the educational activity of working citizens and the establishment of the role of adults educational programs and vocational education and trainings (AE&VET) in the macroeconomic development of regions and territories. Based on the analysis of the statistical data there was established a correlation between the supplementary education attainment rate and the volume of fixed capital investment per capita in the regions of the Russian Federation, which indicates the leading role of regional investors in the education and training of personnel. In the regions, where the volume of investments is growing, the coverage of the population with the continuous education is also increasing, aiming at the implementation of new technologies at the enterprises being built, which, in its turn, boosts the investment appeal of the territory. The authors formulated and confirmed the hypothesis that due to the launch of the educational programs via investments the labor productivity increases, which, in turn, together with the high correlation coefficients, has a positive impact on the growth rates of wages and gross regional product as a whole. Thus, it was concluded that the differentiation of subjects of the Russian Federation on socio-economic indicators is directly related to the general indicators of the regional AE&VET systems. It was noted that for the effective development of AE&VET at the current stage in Russia, it is necessary to incentive an active participation of all the stakeholders: the worker himself, the employers, the investors, the regional authorities and the government. Considering the lack of the employers’ willingness to finance the workers’ education and training, the authors justify the need to introduce state programs stimulating additional education, including budget certificates. The main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used for the development of the regional AE&VET-systems in the interests of ensuring the economic growth as well as the investment appeal of the territory.
The book is a result of the first ever study of the transformations of the higher education institutional landscape in fifteen former USSR countries after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. It explores how the single Soviet model that developed across the vast and diverse territory of the Soviet Union over several decades has evolved into fifteen unique national systems, systems that have responded to national and global developments while still bearing some traces of the past. The book is distinctive as it presents a comprehensive analysis of the reforms and transformations in the region in the last 25 years; and it focuses on institutional landscape through the evolution of the institutional types established and developed in Pre-Soviet, Soviet and Post-Soviet time. It also embraces all fifteen countries of the former USSR, and provides a comparative analysis of transformations of institutional landscape across Post-Soviet systems. It will be highly relevant for students and researchers in the fields of higher education and and sociology, particularly those with an interest in historical and comparative studies.
During the past several decades, several “highly-resourced, accelerated research universities” have been established around the world to pursue—and achieve—academic and research excellence. These institutions are entirely new, not existing universities that were reconfigured. Accelerated Universities provides case studies of eight such universities and highlights the lessons to be learned from these examples. Each of the cases is written by someone involved with leadership at the early developmental stages of each university, and provides insights that only senior executives can illustrate. Accelerated Universitiesshows that visionary leadership and generous funding combined with innovative ideas can yield impressive results in a short time. Universities aspiring to recognition among the top tier of global institutions will find this book indispensable.
Assessing student learning outcomes has become a global trend in higher education. In this paper we report on the validation of the Chinese HEIghten™ Critical Thinking assessment with anationally representative sample of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science students from 35 institutions in China. Key findings suggest that there was a test delivery mode effect favoring the paper tests over the online tests. In general the psychometric quality of the items was satisfactory for low-stakes, group-level uses but there were a few items with low discrimination which awaits further investigation. The relationships between test scores and various external variables such as college entrance examination scores, university elite status, and student perceptions of the test were as expected. We conclude with speculations for the key findings and discussion of directions for future research.
An increasing number of policymakers in developing countries have made the mass expansion of upper-secondary vocational education and training (VET) a top priority. The goal of this study is to examine whether VET fulfills the objectove of building skills and abilities along multiple dimensions and further identify which school-level factors help vocational students build these skills and abilities. To fulfill this goal, we analyzed representative, longitudinal data that we collected on more than 12,000 students from 118 schools in once province of central China. First, descriptive analysis shows approximately 90% of VET students do not make any gains in vocational or general skills. In addition, negative behaviors (misbehavior in the classroom, anti-social behavior, and other risky behaviors) are highly prevalent among VET students. A nontrivial proportion of student internships also fail to meet minimum government requirements for student safety and well-being. Perhaps as a result of these outcomes, more than 60% of students express dissatisfaction with their VET programs, as evidenced by eitehr self-reports or dropping out. Finally, using a multi-level model, we find that school inputs (such as school size, teacher qualifications, and per pupil expenditure) are not correlated with vocational and general skill at the end of the school year, or student dropout in the academic year.
The article uses the framework of resiliency to examine the strategies of principals in schools working under challenging socio-economic conditions that show higher-than-expected educational results. We collected a unique set of data within the Russian ‘National monitoring of education markets and organisations’ programme. This work continues the study, begun in 2014, of the peculiarities of the functioning conditions, management and educational strategies of different groups of schools (urban, rural, implementing higher-level programmes, private, etc.), where authors supplement the economic indicators of school performance with socio-economic contextual factors. A contextualisation model was applied to distinguish the resilient schools studied and the socio-economic characteristics for each school. The typical strategies of principals of resilient schools are as follows: recruiting more successful students from other schools, the branding of the school, creating a culture of high expectations for staff and students, and a less bureaucratic management style.
This article investigates careers of early-career academics in the Russian academic system as it strives to improve its position in the global academic landscape. The typology of “boundaried” and “boundaryless” careers is applied in order to analyze careers in Russia. Two types of academics were identified: “connectors” and “conservationalists.” “Connectors” are more likely to embrace research orientation than “conservationalists” and tend to alter their positions in academia based on research reputation in the global professional community, whereas “conservationalists” are oriented at the hierarchies of positions within universities and country-specific academic credentials.
Is it possible to compare the results in assessments of mathematics across countries with different curricula, traditions and age of starting school? As part of the iPIPS project, a Russian version of the iPIPS baseline assessment was developed and trial data were available from about 300 Russian children at the start and end of their first year at school. These were matched with parallel data from representative samples of equal numbers of children from England and Scotland. The equating of the scales was explored using Rasch measurement. A unified scale was easiest to create for England and Scotland at the start and end of their first year at school when children only differ by a half a year in age, and live in adjacent countries with a common language. Although fewer items showed invariance across the three countries, it was possible to link iPIPS scores in mathematics from the start and end of the first year at school across Scotland, England and Russia. The findings of this study suggest that, despite the apparent difficulties, meaningful comparisons of mathematics attainment and development can be made. These will allow for substantive interpretations with policy implications.
The objective of this chapter is to present the common legacy basis for the chapters devoted to specific post-Soviet countries.
This article develops the concept of flexibility in HRM practices which can increase a company's potential to respond to substantial variation in the business environment. It reveals the characteristics of flexible HRM practices in Russian companies in an uncertain external and internal environment. Cranet survey data gathered from October 2014 until March 2015 is used for measuring the environmental uncertainty and flexibility of staffing, training and development, pay, employee relations and communication. A comparison of the flexibility indices for the four HRM practices show a higher level of flexibility in training and development practices. The research results confirm a direct positive relationship between the complexity of the environment and the flexibility of HRM practices.
Contemporary compulsory schooling emerged in the nineteenth century for the needs of an industrial age. Compulsory schooling has always relied on the Panoptic schema described by Michel Foucault. In recent decades, the development of surveillance technologies has made Panoptic schemas in schools even stronger. Information technology and the transition to an information society has significantly undermined schools' power structures. Teachers no longer possess a monopoly on knowledge. Students have learned to escape the teachers' gaze and can lead virtual lives through their own smartphones inside and outside formal educational settings. One form of modern peer-to-peer interaction takes place on social networking websites that give users the option to be 'hidden', 'passive' or 'inactive' if they wish. To examine the influence of social networking on education we rely on the Foucault's Panopticon theory. Whilst the traditional Panoptic regime may be crumbling, the social network phenomenon can transform modern learning environments for productive educational engagement. Foucault's framework does not take into account the social networks phenomenon. Therefore, empirical evidence is required to articulate the nuances of the modern-day Panopticon. In this chapter we use interviews with teachers to illustrate the reflection of Panoptic logics and practices onto the social networks in classrooms. We explore the possibility for developing dialogically based and student-led pedagogies through social networking websites. 'I do not know how I should communicate with students online, when they write me a private message and call me by my first name. Should I play by their rules on this space? Or, do I need to use the constructs from school?
Originally published in 1995. In securing the future of any democracy, it is vital that the education service should provide an effective introduction to citizenship by means of a high quality and empowering curriculum in educational institutions organized and administered according to democratic principles. In this volume, educators with a variety of backgrounds and experience gained in educational institutions in both Russia and western countries address the question of the conception, justification and implementation of the idea of 'education for democracy'. This is the first publication to emerge from a collaboration of Russian and Western educators in recent times and is an enthralling account of education in countries with wide social, political and historical differences yet having common ground to share over the creation and management of their school systems.
The article discusses an empirical study that was conducted by the authors, in which they surveyed focus groups of young innovative entrepreneurs who are at different stages of creating their own projects. The authors devote particular attention to how training programs for the founders and staff should be implemented as the startup develops from its early phases into a sustainable-growth business.
The article briefly discusses the question of how we should establish special educational practices that could help students mature. In identifying such practices, the author looks to a number of empirical studies that allow us to understand what significance the concept of “maturation” has for children and teenagers. In conclusion, the author notes that modern educational systems rarely provide students with the opportunity to try on adult roles. To allow this, changes will have to be made and special mechanisms will have to be designed that enable children, teenagers, and college students to show initiative and take responsibility.
Given the growing dissatisfaction of international academic communities within the social and humanistic sciences, with their rigid and counter-productive self-referential practices of intra-disciplinary communication, the integrative and cross-disciplinary attempt by Mangone is eminently relevant. For sociologists elaborating on Pitirim Sorokin’s ideas, it may seem questionable that his vast intellectual heritage can serve as a proper foundation for promoting the arguably “new science” of Cultural Psychology. However, instead of using a single disciplinary perspective (sociology or cultural psychology), Mangone succeeds in persuading the reader to look at Sorokin from different angles—that of the dialogue between different disciplines as sociology and cultural psychology.
This article investigates the current state of faculty research activity within Tajik higher education institutions (HEIs), where the level of research productivity has substantially decreased in the past three decades. As part of a larger ethnographic study on professional lives of Tajik faculty members, we investigated and found enormous challenges to conducting research and becoming active researchers reported by our respondents. We analyze and discuss how such issues may challenge the development of higher education in the country.
This paper applies a comparative approach to analyze several dimensions of ‘Global Sociology’ from a normative stance based on a critical review of related discourses in sociological communities. The author reveals three major problems in intra-disciplinary, inter-disciplinary and extra-academic dimensions, manifested not only in ‘factual’ (objective) characteristics but also in ‘ideological’ visions typical of academic communities and connected with a negative stance towards global neoliberalism and its various agents: first, rigid vertical stratification of the international academic field, primarily, in terms of academic publishing and working conditions; second, negative tendencies in the status positions of sociology compared to other sciences, especially economics; and third, little cooperation with policy-makers and corporate practitioners combined with an orientation to supporting various discriminated groups against dominating powers associated with neoliberalism.
Homophily - tendency for people to form social connections with similar others - is one of the key topics in social network analysis. It indicates to what extent people tend to be similar to their friends and in what dimensions. For the long time homophily was just an index of the social similarity, but for the recent years the interest for the homophily formation, dynamics and multidimensionality increased. In this paper we investigate the homophily in such social constructed behavior as food consumption and academic achievements. The study of body mass index in social network context reveals the presence of homophily, which means that persons with similar constitution are more likely to be interconnected with each other. Interestingly, that healthy food consumption has no impact on social network formation, but there is homophily based on fast food consumption. Thus, ‘bad habits’ are stronger forces for the social ties formation. This results show that social constructed behavior is an important component on the process of social network formation.
Despite the differences in political, social, economic, and cultural histories, Brazil, Russia, India, and China share the common characteristics. The BRIC countries are very large in terms of population, territory, and economy. Each country has great economic and political influence in the regions, as well as dominance in education sphere (Altbach et al. 2013). They are emerging markets as their economies have been rapidly growing for the last decades while remaining lower middle income or upper middle income countries (World Bank 2016). The experience of these countries is critical for understanding the higher education system dynamics in large countries with limited resources.