Based on the survey data of employees and employers of small and medium-sized companies, the factors that influence the choice of educational programs by employees, including among various professional groups, were analyzed.
It was found that the picture of existing skills deficits differs significantly in the light of employers' and employees' opinions: employers note that employees do not develop the necessary professional skills for the enterprise, and employees pay more attention to overcoming the skills deficit necessary for their individual career growth. Employees pay attention to external attributes (convenient schedule, participation of famous teachers and the cost of the program), and employers pay more attention to the content of the educational program itself (its industry recognition, distance learning opportunities, brand of the organization and information about employment of students). Orientation of employers on the content characteristics of the educational program priority is due to the accumulation of specific human capital that meets the needs of a particular company.
The results of the study also showed the priority of informal forms of learning used to eliminate the skills deficit by respondents with higher and secondary vocational education. These learning formats are regarded by employees as the most effective and allow them to compensate for the lack of non-formal learning. It was found that the vast majority of employees prefer to learn at work from more experienced colleagues while receiving certificate for education issued by the University, considered by them as the highest ranking. As follows from the results of the study, the development of specific human capital of an employee may be more motivated when employers take into account their own interests, which are usually associated with the accumulation of general human capital.
The materials of this article can be interesting for specialists of adult education, heads of HR and departments of continuing education at universities, heads of small and medium enterprises to optimize the process of personnel training.
Introduction. The need for educational organizations to formulate a development strategy, adapt to the changing market conditions of educational services, modernize internal processes in order to increase their efficiency and ensure a competitive advantage in the market leads to a high demand for educational consulting services. In the context of changing scientific and technological paradigm, an unsustainable institutional environment (the reforms, the implementation of federal development programs), expert support is especially relevant. The managers of educational organizations do not always have sufficient competencies and experience to restructure policies qualitatively and timely or to make the right strategic and tactical decisions. The reaction from the supply of this type of service is the emergence of not only new consulting firms but also the expansion of the range of directions of their activities and methods of providing services.
The aim of the research is to identify new ways and mechanisms for the provision of consulting services in the field of education.
Materials and Methods. In this study authors used a method of cluster analysis of text data of foreign periodicals to identify new directions of educational consulting. An analysis of public sources which are the official websites of consulting organizations was carried out to review the practical examples.
Results. The main types of educational consulting services and the actors of their provision are considered and classified. The practical examples of international and domestic consulting organizations were analyzed and grouped according to the proposed typology. We identified and characterized new directions and approaches appearing in the market of educational consulting.
Conclusions. The directions and methods of providing consulting services analyzed in this article can serve as a guide for educational organizations for making tactical and strategic decisions. Also, this article may contribute to the emergence of new directions for consulting services in the domestic market.
The article presents the methodology for assessing the use of innovative ICT- supported teaching and learning in school education. The methodology combines the survey's data collected from the educational process participants (descriptive tools) and the interpretation of education changes provided by the prescriptive models. The methodology has grown from an attempt to assess the use of innovative ICT-supported teaching/learning in schools during the pilot SELFIE (Self-reflection on Effective Learning by Fostering the use of Innovative Educational Technologies) project in the academic year 2017/18. The methodology is appropriate for a meaningful interpretation of the surveys' data on the innovative use of ICT in educational organizations.
The present paper discusses perspectives of Activity Theory (AT) in the context of contemporary globalizing world, describing which we refer to the notion “De-structuralized modernity” (Sorokin & Froumin, 2020). Radical changes in everyday life challenge social sciences and humanities. Approaches are in demand, which have the potential to comprehend the changing human étant and éntre. We argue that Activity Theory has the potential to face these challenges. Leontiev’s AT grounds on the idea of qualitatively new mental features arising to deal with novel environmental challenges, which is much in line with J.M. Baldwin reasoning on evolution. AT also offers a method to prognosis the upcoming neoplasms. In the same time, applying classics of AT to the current reality, “De-structuralized modernity”, entails the need for new theoretical elaborations of the latter, stemming from the radical transformation of the relations between individual and socio-cultural environments. A unique societal context emerges on the global level, which, on the one hand, requires individual to adapt constantly to changing socio-cultural reality, and, on the other hand, dramatically expands his/her potential for proactive actorhood transforming surrounding structures. We argue that the major and novel challenge for the individual is the task of maintaining the integrity and coherence of the a) Self-identity and b) system of links in and with the socio-cultural environment - in their dynamics and unity. The notion of “culture” has particular relevance and importance in this context because it allows grasping simultaneously two dimensions in their dynamic dialectical interrelations. First, the “internal” (“subjective”, “in the minds”) and “external” (“objective”, material and institutional environment) realities. Second, individual (“micro”) and societal (“macro”) scales of human activities. Discussing the ways to understand these dynamics, we dispute the popular “constitutive view” on personality and refer to the concept of the “ontological shift” (Mironenko & Sorokin, 2018). We also highlight how technological advancements change and “expand” human nature making it capable to deal with the outlined new tasks.
Educational systems are in serious need of personalized platforms, that could help to build students’ multidisciplinary skills. A recommendation system focused on multidisciplinary learning objects could be a solution to the issue. Moscow electronic school repository is analyzed and patterns of its users’ behaviors are described. Those patterns are observed based on the character and structure of actions available to the users, such as creating, copying, using, accessing, and viewing learning objects. The platform users constitute a network community, using similar objects and showing similar interests and thus building network relationships. These networks can be analyzed both at the macro and micro levels, thus visualizing a personal profile of a user in the system. Data analysis showed 7 clusters of users, most of who are not very active, while a moderate number of them exhibit so-called lurking behavior. They look through the learning resources, sometimes use them, but seldom create their own content. Our research found that a trend to create multidisciplinary objects is observed among active users, while lurkers are likely to create mostly monodisciplinary objects. The ratio of multidisciplinary objects can be increased by supporting delurking behaviors among users. Our findings can be useful both for educators and developers of platform learning solutions.
This paper builds a theory of deregulation and roll-out of on-road competition in the public transport sector. Focusing on the dimensions of competition, ownership and authorisation, we identify five distinct regulatory regimes: public monopoly, regulated monopoly, unregulated monopoly, outsourcing to private monopoly and competition in the market. Our generalised theoretical framework allows for the direct comparison in the social welfare terms of the monopolies' outcomes and the fragmented market structure after deregulation. We formulate a set of parameter restrictions that make competition in the market preferable to public monopoly and competition for the market in the form of outsourcing. We also show the theoretical possibility of a ‘revised’ regulatory cycle forming a sequential transition between these identified regulatory regimes. Our model predicts possible policy reversals and the bypassing of certain phases of the cycle, that can occur due to technological advances, changes in fiscal constraints and institutional capacity improvements
Relational reasoning is believed to be an essential construct for studying higher education learning. Relational reasoning is defined as an ability to discern meaningful patterns within any stream of information. Nonetheless, studies of relational reasoning are limited by the psychometric structure of the construct. For many instances, the composite nature of relational reasoning has been described as a bifactor structure. Bifactor models limit possibilities for studying the inner structure of composite constructs by demanding orthogonality of latent dimensions. Such assumption severely limits the interpretation of the results when it is applied to psychological constructs. However, over the last ten years, advances in the fields of Rasch measurement led to the development of the oblique bifactor models, which relax the constraints of the orthogonal bifactor models. We show that the oblique bifactor models exhibit model fit, which is superior compared to the orthogonal bifactor model. Then, we discuss their interpretation and demonstrate the advantages of these models for investigating the inner structure of the test of relational reasoning. The data is a nationally representative sample of Russian engineering students (N = 2036).
The global order, based on international governance and multilateral trade mechanisms in the aftermath of the Second World War, is changing rapidly and creating waves of uncertainty. This is especially true in higher education, a field increasingly built on international cooperation and the free movement of students, academics, knowledge, and ideas. Meanwhile, China has announced its plans for a "New Silk Road" (NSR) and is developing its higher education and research systems at speed. In this book an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars from Europe, China, the USA, Russia, and Australia investigate how academic mobility and cooperation is taking shape along the New Silk Road and what difference it will make, if any, in the global higher education landscape. Opening chapters present the global context for the NSR, the development of Chinese universities along international models, and the history and outcomes of EU-China cooperation. The flows and patterns in academic cooperation along the NSR as they shape and have been shaped by China's universities are then explored in more detail. The conditions for Sino-foreign cooperation are discussed next, with an analysis of regulatory frameworks for cooperation, recognition, data, and privacy. Comparative work follows on the cultural traditions and academic values, similarities, and differences between Sinic and Anglo-American political and educational cultures, and their implications for the governance and mission of higher education, the role of critical scholarship, and the state and standing of the humanities in China. The book concludes with a focus on the "Idea of a University"; the values underpinning its mission, shape, and purpose, reflecting on the implications of China's rapid higher education development for the geo-politics of higher education itself.
We comment on the article by Zagaria et al., which explicates the ““soft” nature of psychology: a minor consensus in its “core”” (Zagaria et al., p. 1), manifested by the discordant character of definitions of psychological “core-constructs”. Zagaria et al. build on the assumption that psychological science should reside in the status of a paradigm, meanwhile the real state of things they consider as pre-paradigmatic, imperfect and unhealthy, from which a transition to a paradigm is necessary.We cannot agree with this provision. We argue that not internal coherence and consistency, but the ability to reflect multifaceted reality, to answer its innovative manifestations in various dimensions and solve tasks that life poses to humanity with an adequate set of different tools not reducible to a single approach, is what makes the value of science. Psychology originally developed as poly paradigmatic science, because its subject has a most complex nature, holistic, yet incorporating many aspects different in their essence and, therefore, requiring different versions of the methodology. Considering epistemology of psychological science from the philosophical perspective implying special focus on the ontological issues, we argue that poly paradigmatic structure of psychology is a virtue, not weakness. Thanks to such a structure, modular, like a Swiss knife, our science may offer the most effective solutions for a variety of problems. Multiplicity of relative approaches is best fit for life and innovation, even though we have to sacrifice rigor and concordance of definitions in introductory textbooks.
This work is aimed at assessment of content quality of lesson scenarios in Moscow e-school, comparison of expert data with the features of application of these scenarios in order to reveal strong points and deficiencies in content of lesson scenarios. The considered lesson scenarios are characterized by high quality of material component of educational content. The lesson scenarios substantiate forms and types of control of educational results. Methodological support of the lessons, differentiation and individualization of the content, existence of nonstandard situations stimulating personal participation of students, instructions for a student have been manifested least in the lesson scenarios. High expert quality appraisals of lesson scenarios mostly do not coincide with the popularity of lesson scenarios among the users.
Yoga and meditation have experienced a boom in Western appropriation in recent decades and consistently grow more culturally ubiquitous. Likewise, rates of vegetarianism are quickly rising. However, little scholarly work has been produced around these newer forms upon the cultural landscape. Even less adopts a sociological perspective. This paper seeks to remedy this fact. It aims to advance understandings as to the patterns of consumption regarding newer cultural forms, with yoga, meditation, and vegetarianism as case studies. Proceeding with the UK as the field of study, this paper presents an original national survey. It performs regression analyses with the survey data to accomplish an analysis of interaction with these cultural forms. From the results, this paper asserts that objectified cultural capital is still salient for social distinction of these forms. This paper also suggests criteria by which emerging forms of culture may establish more quickly as high status cultural objects.
Cultural sociology must catch up in taking seriously recent initiatives in the sociology of culture and cognition, represented by the works of Omar Lizardo, John Levi Martin, Stephen Vaisey, and others. However, aiming at progress in cultural analysis, these theories are partly driven by an epistemic logic alien to cultural theorizing, making the very concept of culture redundant. To identify this anti-cultural strain within the ongoing cognitive turn in sociology, I propose an ideal-typical model—‘the informational theory of communication,’ which reduces culture to information. Although many cognitive scientists and sociologists of culture and cognition are aware of the limitations and counter-productivity of this model, and it might not exist in a pure form, I argue that, first, it is still clearly traceable in many of their arguments, and, second, that it can be seen as a cultural logic underlying a substantial part of their arguments. I posit that replacing this logic of explanation with the Durkheimian model of sui generis synthesis, the concept of emergence, and the idea of ‘boundary conditions’ not only allows us to integrate the insights of cognitive science into sociology, but also opens a way for sociology to contribute to the cognitive sciences.
Researchers see self-regulated learning (SRL) as a fundamental skill for succeeding in massive open online courses (MOOCs). However, there is no sufficient evidence of adequate functioning of SRL dimensions such as environment structuring, goal setting, time management, help-seeking, task strategies, and self-evaluation in the MOOC environment. This study fills the gap in understanding the structure of SRL skills utilising the Online Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire (OSLQ). The construct-related validity of the OSLQ is evaluated based on self-reported survey responses of 913 Russian MOOC learners with confirmatory factor analysis and criterion-related validity is checked with independent samples t-tests comparison. The results show that the original six-factor hierarchical model does not fit the data adequately. The evidence implies that the dimension ‘help-seeking’ is not effective in the MOOC environment. Therefore, a redefined five-factor hierarchical model of the OSLQ is suggested.